Building stones are divided into two categories.
- Natural stone Parts and crumbs are extracted raw from the mine.
- Artificial stones These stones are used in construction, which are divided into two types of wisdom, which are named depending on the size and coarseness of the seeds. They use abrasion and shaving.
The stones used in construction include carcass stone, windbreak, slate and plaque.
The carcass stone does not have a special shape and as it is brought from the mine, it is used in substructure and filling the distance between the stones and rough flooring. The slate stone is obtained from carcass stone and in the construction workshop, it is angled with an ax and finds regular dimensions and is used for load-bearing walls, flooring, etc. The windbreak or malone stone used in paving or tunneling is neatly shaped with an ax, especially on one side. Slab contraction joints should intersect at the openings for columns and should intersect at the openings for columns, and should intersect at the openings for columns.
Most of the stones used in construction in Iran are serpentine, marble, green stone, quartzite, granite, travertine, limestone, sandstone and shish. And its colors vary from pure white to black. Marble is commonly used for indoor and outdoor spaces, including floors, walls and artwork.
Due to its eye-catching greenery, green stone is used in Company, paving and retaining walls. Granite is very durable, hard, and durable, and is mostly found in gray, smoky, and brown. This type of stone can be called open gabbro.
Quartzite is harder than granite, but granite is often mistaken for its rough, crystalline appearance, and is mostly found in gray, red, brown, and brown.
Trautone stone is also used to display inside and outside the building. It is available in three colors: white, cream and gray. Limestone is found in three types of Lime stone. Vavan stone, dualite stone and crystal Lime stone. These stones are also used for decorations inside and outside the building, wall decoration, wall decorations, Weston floor. Sandstone is usually purple, gray, and reddish brown.
Due to its eye-catching greenery, green stone is used in Company, paving and retaining walls. Granite is very hard and durable and is mostly seen in gray, smoky and brown colors.
This type of stone is called open gabbro.
Quartzite is harder than granite, but granite is often confused with its crystalline appearance and is more likely to be found in gray, red, brown, and burnt brown. Travertine stone is also used to display inside and outside the building. There are three colors: white, cream and gray.
Limestone is found in three types. Vavan stone, dualite stone and crystal Lime stone. These stones are also used for interior and exterior decoration of wall facades, wall decorations, floors and columns. Sandstone is usually purple, gray, and reddish brown.
The stone used for the exterior of the building must have high resistance to sunlight, heat, cold and moisture. Therefore, travertine, granite and sandstone are the best choices. The best choice for exterior facade is Travertine because it is more durable and cheaper. It is made of granite and due to its porosity; it has a good relationship with cement and sticks firmly to the wall, resulting in high durability. Low-resistant stones with a beautiful appearance are suitable for the interior of the building. Marble, granite and porcelain stones, etc., are more suitable for this purpose due to the lack of contact with weather conditions.
Granite is also suitable for use on stairs due to its high strength, but sometimes due to the high price of granite, they use grade 2 marble, which is a big mistake. Especially the stairs of offices or schools where there is a lot of traffic must be made of high quality marble or granite. Of course, there is nothing wrong with using travertine or sandstone inside the building, but these stones can have a very beautiful effect around the doors of elevators, lobbies and stair walls.
The stones are considered to be the best floor coverin
gs in the world due to their durability, natural color, impact resistance to sharp objects, sub and re-polishing, beautiful and stylish interior space, good temperature maintenance in the underfloor heating system. For the floor of office and commercial spaces, high-quality marble should be used. But for the floor of carpets and sidewalks, stones that are resistant to pressure and frost should be used. It should be noted that first-class stone cannot be used in this regard. For sanitary services, stones that are resistant to moisture and chemicals should be used. Marble is not suitable for these places due to its non-resistance to chemicals. It is the best and cheapest option for the wall covering and paving of the trawl yard.
The best building stones
۱- Granite Granites are considered to be a continuous building because they are very dense and durable and tolerate chemical environments well. These rocks are resistant to water penetration and impact. The appearance of granites due to the work done on the final surface may be large It is the best condition for reflecting and the beauty of the color of its crystals. The combined use of polished granite and burnt granite creates a special effect due to their contrast.
- Sandstone – From the settling and sticking of calcium, silica, iron
oxide and dolomite to each other, sandstone is formed and silica sand iron and dolomite are formed, respectively. And sandstone, iron ore, silica, iron oxide. These rocks may have a rough or soft texture and, depending on the color of the adhesive, include a range of white, pea, and gray-red colors. The sandstones are generally frost-resistant. Lime sandstone is not resistant to acidic environments because in this condition, calcium carbonate is degraded and methylated. The pure calcite is white, which is why lime sandstone is also silica sand. Silica is bonded together to form an acidic environment and is more resistant to gray colors. Iron oxide sandstone is formed by the condensation of iron oxides and is very durable and is available in reddish-brown colors. Dolomite sandstone is formed by the bonding of magnesium carbonate and calcium together. It is not very resistant in urban environments. These types of stones are colored inks.
Diorite – Diorites are light gray to dark gray and sometimes greenish gray. Diorite is used for paving stones, stair stones, floors and also in road construction.
۴- Gabro – Gabro color is greenish green, green and black.
- Marble – A type of limestone that has a variety of colors. In terms of weathering, gases and acid rain have little resistance, so this stone is used in the interior of the building.
۶- Quartzite – Stone mass has been changed and silica cement is used in indoor and outdoor sections of bridges and tunnels.